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Why i’m bullish on Zilliqa (long read)

Edit: TL;DR added in the comments
 
Hey all, I've been researching coins since 2017 and have gone through 100s of them in the last 3 years. I got introduced to blockchain via Bitcoin of course, analyzed Ethereum thereafter and from that moment I have a keen interest in smart contact platforms. I’m passionate about Ethereum but I find Zilliqa to have a better risk-reward ratio. Especially because Zilliqa has found an elegant balance between being secure, decentralized and scalable in my opinion.
 
Below I post my analysis of why from all the coins I went through I’m most bullish on Zilliqa (yes I went through Tezos, EOS, NEO, VeChain, Harmony, Algorand, Cardano etc.). Note that this is not investment advice and although it's a thorough analysis there is obviously some bias involved. Looking forward to what you all think!
 
Fun fact: the name Zilliqa is a play on ‘silica’ silicon dioxide which means “Silicon for the high-throughput consensus computer.”
 
This post is divided into (i) Technology, (ii) Business & Partnerships, and (iii) Marketing & Community. I’ve tried to make the technology part readable for a broad audience. If you’ve ever tried understanding the inner workings of Bitcoin and Ethereum you should be able to grasp most parts. Otherwise, just skim through and once you are zoning out head to the next part.
 
Technology and some more:
 
Introduction
 
The technology is one of the main reasons why I’m so bullish on Zilliqa. First thing you see on their website is: “Zilliqa is a high-performance, high-security blockchain platform for enterprises and next-generation applications.” These are some bold statements.
 
Before we deep dive into the technology let’s take a step back in time first as they have quite the history. The initial research paper from which Zilliqa originated dates back to August 2016: Elastico: A Secure Sharding Protocol For Open Blockchains where Loi Luu (Kyber Network) is one of the co-authors. Other ideas that led to the development of what Zilliqa has become today are: Bitcoin-NG, collective signing CoSi, ByzCoin and Omniledger.
 
The technical white paper was made public in August 2017 and since then they have achieved everything stated in the white paper and also created their own open source intermediate level smart contract language called Scilla (functional programming language similar to OCaml) too.
 
Mainnet is live since the end of January 2019 with daily transaction rates growing continuously. About a week ago mainnet reached 5 million transactions, 500.000+ addresses in total along with 2400 nodes keeping the network decentralized and secure. Circulating supply is nearing 11 billion and currently only mining rewards are left. The maximum supply is 21 billion with annual inflation being 7.13% currently and will only decrease with time.
 
Zilliqa realized early on that the usage of public cryptocurrencies and smart contracts were increasing but decentralized, secure, and scalable alternatives were lacking in the crypto space. They proposed to apply sharding onto a public smart contract blockchain where the transaction rate increases almost linear with the increase in the amount of nodes. More nodes = higher transaction throughput and increased decentralization. Sharding comes in many forms and Zilliqa uses network-, transaction- and computational sharding. Network sharding opens up the possibility of using transaction- and computational sharding on top. Zilliqa does not use state sharding for now. We’ll come back to this later.
 
Before we continue dissecting how Zilliqa achieves such from a technological standpoint it’s good to keep in mind that a blockchain being decentralised and secure and scalable is still one of the main hurdles in allowing widespread usage of decentralised networks. In my opinion this needs to be solved first before blockchains can get to the point where they can create and add large scale value. So I invite you to read the next section to grasp the underlying fundamentals. Because after all these premises need to be true otherwise there isn’t a fundamental case to be bullish on Zilliqa, right?
 
Down the rabbit hole
 
How have they achieved this? Let’s define the basics first: key players on Zilliqa are the users and the miners. A user is anybody who uses the blockchain to transfer funds or run smart contracts. Miners are the (shard) nodes in the network who run the consensus protocol and get rewarded for their service in Zillings (ZIL). The mining network is divided into several smaller networks called shards, which is also referred to as ‘network sharding’. Miners subsequently are randomly assigned to a shard by another set of miners called DS (Directory Service) nodes. The regular shards process transactions and the outputs of these shards are eventually combined by the DS shard as they reach consensus on the final state. More on how these DS shards reach consensus (via pBFT) will be explained later on.
 
The Zilliqa network produces two types of blocks: DS blocks and Tx blocks. One DS Block consists of 100 Tx Blocks. And as previously mentioned there are two types of nodes concerned with reaching consensus: shard nodes and DS nodes. Becoming a shard node or DS node is being defined by the result of a PoW cycle (Ethash) at the beginning of the DS Block. All candidate mining nodes compete with each other and run the PoW (Proof-of-Work) cycle for 60 seconds and the submissions achieving the highest difficulty will be allowed on the network. And to put it in perspective: the average difficulty for one DS node is ~ 2 Th/s equaling 2.000.000 Mh/s or 55 thousand+ GeForce GTX 1070 / 8 GB GPUs at 35.4 Mh/s. Each DS Block 10 new DS nodes are allowed. And a shard node needs to provide around 8.53 GH/s currently (around 240 GTX 1070s). Dual mining ETH/ETC and ZIL is possible and can be done via mining software such as Phoenix and Claymore. There are pools and if you have large amounts of hashing power (Ethash) available you could mine solo.
 
The PoW cycle of 60 seconds is a peak performance and acts as an entry ticket to the network. The entry ticket is called a sybil resistance mechanism and makes it incredibly hard for adversaries to spawn lots of identities and manipulate the network with these identities. And after every 100 Tx Blocks which corresponds to roughly 1,5 hour this PoW process repeats. In between these 1,5 hour, no PoW needs to be done meaning Zilliqa’s energy consumption to keep the network secure is low. For more detailed information on how mining works click here.
Okay, hats off to you. You have made it this far. Before we go any deeper down the rabbit hole we first must understand why Zilliqa goes through all of the above technicalities and understand a bit more what a blockchain on a more fundamental level is. Because the core of Zilliqa’s consensus protocol relies on the usage of pBFT (practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance) we need to know more about state machines and their function. Navigate to Viewblock, a Zilliqa block explorer, and just come back to this article. We will use this site to navigate through a few concepts.
 
We have established that Zilliqa is a public and distributed blockchain. Meaning that everyone with an internet connection can send ZILs, trigger smart contracts, etc. and there is no central authority who fully controls the network. Zilliqa and other public and distributed blockchains (like Bitcoin and Ethereum) can also be defined as state machines.
 
Taking the liberty of paraphrasing examples and definitions given by Samuel Brooks’ medium article, he describes the definition of a blockchain (like Zilliqa) as: “A peer-to-peer, append-only datastore that uses consensus to synchronize cryptographically-secure data”.
 
Next, he states that: "blockchains are fundamentally systems for managing valid state transitions”. For some more context, I recommend reading the whole medium article to get a better grasp of the definitions and understanding of state machines. Nevertheless, let’s try to simplify and compile it into a single paragraph. Take traffic lights as an example: all its states (red, amber, and green) are predefined, all possible outcomes are known and it doesn’t matter if you encounter the traffic light today or tomorrow. It will still behave the same. Managing the states of a traffic light can be done by triggering a sensor on the road or pushing a button resulting in one traffic lights’ state going from green to red (via amber) and another light from red to green.
 
With public blockchains like Zilliqa, this isn’t so straightforward and simple. It started with block #1 almost 1,5 years ago and every 45 seconds or so a new block linked to the previous block is being added. Resulting in a chain of blocks with transactions in it that everyone can verify from block #1 to the current #647.000+ block. The state is ever changing and the states it can find itself in are infinite. And while the traffic light might work together in tandem with various other traffic lights, it’s rather insignificant comparing it to a public blockchain. Because Zilliqa consists of 2400 nodes who need to work together to achieve consensus on what the latest valid state is while some of these nodes may have latency or broadcast issues, drop offline or are deliberately trying to attack the network, etc.
 
Now go back to the Viewblock page take a look at the amount of transaction, addresses, block and DS height and then hit refresh. Obviously as expected you see new incremented values on one or all parameters. And how did the Zilliqa blockchain manage to transition from a previous valid state to the latest valid state? By using pBFT to reach consensus on the latest valid state.
 
After having obtained the entry ticket, miners execute pBFT to reach consensus on the ever-changing state of the blockchain. pBFT requires a series of network communication between nodes, and as such there is no GPU involved (but CPU). Resulting in the total energy consumed to keep the blockchain secure, decentralized and scalable being low.
 
pBFT stands for practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance and is an optimization on the Byzantine Fault Tolerant algorithm. To quote Blockonomi: “In the context of distributed systems, Byzantine Fault Tolerance is the ability of a distributed computer network to function as desired and correctly reach a sufficient consensus despite malicious components (nodes) of the system failing or propagating incorrect information to other peers.” Zilliqa is such a distributed computer network and depends on the honesty of the nodes (shard and DS) to reach consensus and to continuously update the state with the latest block. If pBFT is a new term for you I can highly recommend the Blockonomi article.
 
The idea of pBFT was introduced in 1999 - one of the authors even won a Turing award for it - and it is well researched and applied in various blockchains and distributed systems nowadays. If you want more advanced information than the Blockonomi link provides click here. And if you’re in between Blockonomi and the University of Singapore read the Zilliqa Design Story Part 2 dating from October 2017.
Quoting from the Zilliqa tech whitepaper: “pBFT relies upon a correct leader (which is randomly selected) to begin each phase and proceed when the sufficient majority exists. In case the leader is byzantine it can stall the entire consensus protocol. To address this challenge, pBFT offers a view change protocol to replace the byzantine leader with another one.”
 
pBFT can tolerate ⅓ of the nodes being dishonest (offline counts as Byzantine = dishonest) and the consensus protocol will function without stalling or hiccups. Once there are more than ⅓ of dishonest nodes but no more than ⅔ the network will be stalled and a view change will be triggered to elect a new DS leader. Only when more than ⅔ of the nodes are dishonest (66%) double-spend attacks become possible.
 
If the network stalls no transactions can be processed and one has to wait until a new honest leader has been elected. When the mainnet was just launched and in its early phases, view changes happened regularly. As of today the last stalling of the network - and view change being triggered - was at the end of October 2019.
 
Another benefit of using pBFT for consensus besides low energy is the immediate finality it provides. Once your transaction is included in a block and the block is added to the chain it’s done. Lastly, take a look at this article where three types of finality are being defined: probabilistic, absolute and economic finality. Zilliqa falls under the absolute finality (just like Tendermint for example). Although lengthy already we skipped through some of the inner workings from Zilliqa’s consensus: read the Zilliqa Design Story Part 3 and you will be close to having a complete picture on it. Enough about PoW, sybil resistance mechanism, pBFT, etc. Another thing we haven’t looked at yet is the amount of decentralization.
 
Decentralisation
 
Currently, there are four shards, each one of them consisting of 600 nodes. 1 shard with 600 so-called DS nodes (Directory Service - they need to achieve a higher difficulty than shard nodes) and 1800 shard nodes of which 250 are shard guards (centralized nodes controlled by the team). The amount of shard guards has been steadily declining from 1200 in January 2019 to 250 as of May 2020. On the Viewblock statistics, you can see that many of the nodes are being located in the US but those are only the (CPU parts of the) shard nodes who perform pBFT. There is no data from where the PoW sources are coming. And when the Zilliqa blockchain starts reaching its transaction capacity limit, a network upgrade needs to be executed to lift the current cap of maximum 2400 nodes to allow more nodes and formation of more shards which will allow to network to keep on scaling according to demand.
Besides shard nodes there are also seed nodes. The main role of seed nodes is to serve as direct access points (for end-users and clients) to the core Zilliqa network that validates transactions. Seed nodes consolidate transaction requests and forward these to the lookup nodes (another type of nodes) for distribution to the shards in the network. Seed nodes also maintain the entire transaction history and the global state of the blockchain which is needed to provide services such as block explorers. Seed nodes in the Zilliqa network are comparable to Infura on Ethereum.
 
The seed nodes were first only operated by Zilliqa themselves, exchanges and Viewblock. Operators of seed nodes like exchanges had no incentive to open them for the greater public. They were centralised at first. Decentralisation at the seed nodes level has been steadily rolled out since March 2020 ( Zilliqa Improvement Proposal 3 ). Currently the amount of seed nodes is being increased, they are public-facing and at the same time PoS is applied to incentivize seed node operators and make it possible for ZIL holders to stake and earn passive yields. Important distinction: seed nodes are not involved with consensus! That is still PoW as entry ticket and pBFT for the actual consensus.
 
5% of the block rewards are being assigned to seed nodes (from the beginning in 2019) and those are being used to pay out ZIL stakers. The 5% block rewards with an annual yield of 10.03% translate to roughly 610 MM ZILs in total that can be staked. Exchanges use the custodial variant of staking and wallets like Moonlet will use the non-custodial version (starting in Q3 2020). Staking is being done by sending ZILs to a smart contract created by Zilliqa and audited by Quantstamp.
 
With a high amount of DS; shard nodes and seed nodes becoming more decentralized too, Zilliqa qualifies for the label of decentralized in my opinion.
 
Smart contracts
 
Let me start by saying I’m not a developer and my programming skills are quite limited. So I‘m taking the ELI5 route (maybe 12) but if you are familiar with Javascript, Solidity or specifically OCaml please head straight to Scilla - read the docs to get a good initial grasp of how Zilliqa’s smart contract language Scilla works and if you ask yourself “why another programming language?” check this article. And if you want to play around with some sample contracts in an IDE click here. The faucet can be found here. And more information on architecture, dapp development and API can be found on the Developer Portal.
If you are more into listening and watching: check this recent webinar explaining Zilliqa and Scilla. Link is time-stamped so you’ll start right away with a platform introduction, roadmap 2020 and afterwards a proper Scilla introduction.
 
Generalized: programming languages can be divided into being ‘object-oriented’ or ‘functional’. Here is an ELI5 given by software development academy: * “all programs have two basic components, data – what the program knows – and behavior – what the program can do with that data. So object-oriented programming states that combining data and related behaviors in one place, is called “object”, which makes it easier to understand how a particular program works. On the other hand, functional programming argues that data and behavior are different things and should be separated to ensure their clarity.” *
 
Scilla is on the functional side and shares similarities with OCaml: OCaml is a general-purpose programming language with an emphasis on expressiveness and safety. It has an advanced type system that helps catch your mistakes without getting in your way. It's used in environments where a single mistake can cost millions and speed matters, is supported by an active community, and has a rich set of libraries and development tools. For all its power, OCaml is also pretty simple, which is one reason it's often used as a teaching language.
 
Scilla is blockchain agnostic, can be implemented onto other blockchains as well, is recognized by academics and won a so-called Distinguished Artifact Award award at the end of last year.
 
One of the reasons why the Zilliqa team decided to create their own programming language focused on preventing smart contract vulnerabilities is that adding logic on a blockchain, programming, means that you cannot afford to make mistakes. Otherwise, it could cost you. It’s all great and fun blockchains being immutable but updating your code because you found a bug isn’t the same as with a regular web application for example. And with smart contracts, it inherently involves cryptocurrencies in some form thus value.
 
Another difference with programming languages on a blockchain is gas. Every transaction you do on a smart contract platform like Zilliqa or Ethereum costs gas. With gas you basically pay for computational costs. Sending a ZIL from address A to address B costs 0.001 ZIL currently. Smart contracts are more complex, often involve various functions and require more gas (if gas is a new concept click here ).
 
So with Scilla, similar to Solidity, you need to make sure that “every function in your smart contract will run as expected without hitting gas limits. An improper resource analysis may lead to situations where funds may get stuck simply because a part of the smart contract code cannot be executed due to gas limits. Such constraints are not present in traditional software systems”. Scilla design story part 1
 
Some examples of smart contract issues you’d want to avoid are: leaking funds, ‘unexpected changes to critical state variables’ (example: someone other than you setting his or her address as the owner of the smart contract after creation) or simply killing a contract.
 
Scilla also allows for formal verification. Wikipedia to the rescue: In the context of hardware and software systems, formal verification is the act of proving or disproving the correctness of intended algorithms underlying a system with respect to a certain formal specification or property, using formal methods of mathematics.
 
Formal verification can be helpful in proving the correctness of systems such as: cryptographic protocols, combinational circuits, digital circuits with internal memory, and software expressed as source code.
 
Scilla is being developed hand-in-hand with formalization of its semantics and its embedding into the Coq proof assistant — a state-of-the art tool for mechanized proofs about properties of programs.”
 
Simply put, with Scilla and accompanying tooling developers can be mathematically sure and proof that the smart contract they’ve written does what he or she intends it to do.
 
Smart contract on a sharded environment and state sharding
 
There is one more topic I’d like to touch on: smart contract execution in a sharded environment (and what is the effect of state sharding). This is a complex topic. I’m not able to explain it any easier than what is posted here. But I will try to compress the post into something easy to digest.
 
Earlier on we have established that Zilliqa can process transactions in parallel due to network sharding. This is where the linear scalability comes from. We can define simple transactions: a transaction from address A to B (Category 1), a transaction where a user interacts with one smart contract (Category 2) and the most complex ones where triggering a transaction results in multiple smart contracts being involved (Category 3). The shards are able to process transactions on their own without interference of the other shards. With Category 1 transactions that is doable, with Category 2 transactions sometimes if that address is in the same shard as the smart contract but with Category 3 you definitely need communication between the shards. Solving that requires to make a set of communication rules the protocol needs to follow in order to process all transactions in a generalised fashion.
 
And this is where the downsides of state sharding comes in currently. All shards in Zilliqa have access to the complete state. Yes the state size (0.1 GB at the moment) grows and all of the nodes need to store it but it also means that they don’t need to shop around for information available on other shards. Requiring more communication and adding more complexity. Computer science knowledge and/or developer knowledge required links if you want to dig further: Scilla - language grammar Scilla - Foundations for Verifiable Decentralised Computations on a Blockchain Gas Accounting NUS x Zilliqa: Smart contract language workshop
 
Easier to follow links on programming Scilla https://learnscilla.com/home Ivan on Tech
 
Roadmap / Zilliqa 2.0
 
There is no strict defined roadmap but here are topics being worked on. And via the Zilliqa website there is also more information on the projects they are working on.
 
Business & Partnerships
 
It’s not only technology in which Zilliqa seems to be excelling as their ecosystem has been expanding and starting to grow rapidly. The project is on a mission to provide OpenFinance (OpFi) to the world and Singapore is the right place to be due to its progressive regulations and futuristic thinking. Singapore has taken a proactive approach towards cryptocurrencies by introducing the Payment Services Act 2019 (PS Act). Among other things, the PS Act will regulate intermediaries dealing with certain cryptocurrencies, with a particular focus on consumer protection and anti-money laundering. It will also provide a stable regulatory licensing and operating framework for cryptocurrency entities, effectively covering all crypto businesses and exchanges based in Singapore. According to PWC 82% of the surveyed executives in Singapore reported blockchain initiatives underway and 13% of them have already brought the initiatives live to the market. There is also an increasing list of organizations that are starting to provide digital payment services. Moreover, Singaporean blockchain developers Building Cities Beyond has recently created an innovation $15 million grant to encourage development on its ecosystem. This all suggests that Singapore tries to position itself as (one of) the leading blockchain hubs in the world.
 
Zilliqa seems to already take advantage of this and recently helped launch Hg Exchange on their platform, together with financial institutions PhillipCapital, PrimePartners and Fundnel. Hg Exchange, which is now approved by the Monetary Authority of Singapore (MAS), uses smart contracts to represent digital assets. Through Hg Exchange financial institutions worldwide can use Zilliqa's safe-by-design smart contracts to enable the trading of private equities. For example, think of companies such as Grab, Airbnb, SpaceX that are not available for public trading right now. Hg Exchange will allow investors to buy shares of private companies & unicorns and capture their value before an IPO. Anquan, the main company behind Zilliqa, has also recently announced that they became a partner and shareholder in TEN31 Bank, which is a fully regulated bank allowing for tokenization of assets and is aiming to bridge the gap between conventional banking and the blockchain world. If STOs, the tokenization of assets, and equity trading will continue to increase, then Zilliqa’s public blockchain would be the ideal candidate due to its strategic positioning, partnerships, regulatory compliance and the technology that is being built on top of it.
 
What is also very encouraging is their focus on banking the un(der)banked. They are launching a stablecoin basket starting with XSGD. As many of you know, stablecoins are currently mostly used for trading. However, Zilliqa is actively trying to broaden the use case of stablecoins. I recommend everybody to read this text that Amrit Kumar wrote (one of the co-founders). These stablecoins will be integrated in the traditional markets and bridge the gap between the crypto world and the traditional world. This could potentially revolutionize and legitimise the crypto space if retailers and companies will for example start to use stablecoins for payments or remittances, instead of it solely being used for trading.
 
Zilliqa also released their DeFi strategic roadmap (dating November 2019) which seems to be aligning well with their OpFi strategy. A non-custodial DEX is coming to Zilliqa made by Switcheo which allows cross-chain trading (atomic swaps) between ETH, EOS and ZIL based tokens. They also signed a Memorandum of Understanding for a (soon to be announced) USD stablecoin. And as Zilliqa is all about regulations and being compliant, I’m speculating on it to be a regulated USD stablecoin. Furthermore, XSGD is already created and visible on block explorer and XIDR (Indonesian Stablecoin) is also coming soon via StraitsX. Here also an overview of the Tech Stack for Financial Applications from September 2019. Further quoting Amrit Kumar on this:
 
There are two basic building blocks in DeFi/OpFi though: 1) stablecoins as you need a non-volatile currency to get access to this market and 2) a dex to be able to trade all these financial assets. The rest are built on top of these blocks.
 
So far, together with our partners and community, we have worked on developing these building blocks with XSGD as a stablecoin. We are working on bringing a USD-backed stablecoin as well. We will soon have a decentralised exchange developed by Switcheo. And with HGX going live, we are also venturing into the tokenization space. More to come in the future.”
 
Additionally, they also have this ZILHive initiative that injects capital into projects. There have been already 6 waves of various teams working on infrastructure, innovation and research, and they are not from ASEAN or Singapore only but global: see Grantees breakdown by country. Over 60 project teams from over 20 countries have contributed to Zilliqa's ecosystem. This includes individuals and teams developing wallets, explorers, developer toolkits, smart contract testing frameworks, dapps, etc. As some of you may know, Unstoppable Domains (UD) blew up when they launched on Zilliqa. UD aims to replace cryptocurrency addresses with a human-readable name and allows for uncensorable websites. Zilliqa will probably be the only one able to handle all these transactions onchain due to ability to scale and its resulting low fees which is why the UD team launched this on Zilliqa in the first place. Furthermore, Zilliqa also has a strong emphasis on security, compliance, and privacy, which is why they partnered with companies like Elliptic, ChainSecurity (part of PwC Switzerland), and Incognito. Their sister company Aqilliz (Zilliqa spelled backwards) focuses on revolutionizing the digital advertising space and is doing interesting things like using Zilliqa to track outdoor digital ads with companies like Foodpanda.
 
Zilliqa is listed on nearly all major exchanges, having several different fiat-gateways and recently have been added to Binance’s margin trading and futures trading with really good volume. They also have a very impressive team with good credentials and experience. They don't just have “tech people”. They have a mix of tech people, business people, marketeers, scientists, and more. Naturally, it's good to have a mix of people with different skill sets if you work in the crypto space.
 
Marketing & Community
 
Zilliqa has a very strong community. If you just follow their Twitter their engagement is much higher for a coin that has approximately 80k followers. They also have been ‘coin of the day’ by LunarCrush many times. LunarCrush tracks real-time cryptocurrency value and social data. According to their data, it seems Zilliqa has a more fundamental and deeper understanding of marketing and community engagement than almost all other coins. While almost all coins have been a bit frozen in the last months, Zilliqa seems to be on its own bull run. It was somewhere in the 100s a few months ago and is currently ranked #46 on CoinGecko. Their official Telegram also has over 20k people and is very active, and their community channel which is over 7k now is more active and larger than many other official channels. Their local communities also seem to be growing.
 
Moreover, their community started ‘Zillacracy’ together with the Zilliqa core team ( see www.zillacracy.com ). It’s a community-run initiative where people from all over the world are now helping with marketing and development on Zilliqa. Since its launch in February 2020 they have been doing a lot and will also run their own non-custodial seed node for staking. This seed node will also allow them to start generating revenue for them to become a self sustaining entity that could potentially scale up to become a decentralized company working in parallel with the Zilliqa core team. Comparing it to all the other smart contract platforms (e.g. Cardano, EOS, Tezos etc.) they don't seem to have started a similar initiative (correct me if I’m wrong though). This suggests in my opinion that these other smart contract platforms do not fully understand how to utilize the ‘power of the community’. This is something you cannot ‘buy with money’ and gives many projects in the space a disadvantage.
 
Zilliqa also released two social products called SocialPay and Zeeves. SocialPay allows users to earn ZILs while tweeting with a specific hashtag. They have recently used it in partnership with the Singapore Red Cross for a marketing campaign after their initial pilot program. It seems like a very valuable social product with a good use case. I can see a lot of traditional companies entering the space through this product, which they seem to suggest will happen. Tokenizing hashtags with smart contracts to get network effect is a very smart and innovative idea.
 
Regarding Zeeves, this is a tipping bot for Telegram. They already have 1000s of signups and they plan to keep upgrading it for more and more people to use it (e.g. they recently have added a quiz features). They also use it during AMAs to reward people in real-time. It’s a very smart approach to grow their communities and get familiar with ZIL. I can see this becoming very big on Telegram. This tool suggests, again, that the Zilliqa team has a deeper understanding of what the crypto space and community needs and is good at finding the right innovative tools to grow and scale.
 
To be honest, I haven’t covered everything (i’m also reaching the character limited haha). So many updates happening lately that it's hard to keep up, such as the International Monetary Fund mentioning Zilliqa in their report, custodial and non-custodial Staking, Binance Margin, Futures, Widget, entering the Indian market, and more. The Head of Marketing Colin Miles has also released this as an overview of what is coming next. And last but not least, Vitalik Buterin has been mentioning Zilliqa lately acknowledging Zilliqa and mentioning that both projects have a lot of room to grow. There is much more info of course and a good part of it has been served to you on a silver platter. I invite you to continue researching by yourself :-) And if you have any comments or questions please post here!
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Why i’m bullish on Zilliqa (long read)

Hey all, I've been researching coins since 2017 and have gone through 100s of them in the last 3 years. I got introduced to blockchain via Bitcoin of course, analysed Ethereum thereafter and from that moment I have a keen interest in smart contact platforms. I’m passionate about Ethereum but I find Zilliqa to have a better risk reward ratio. Especially because Zilliqa has found an elegant balance between being secure, decentralised and scalable in my opinion.
 
Below I post my analysis why from all the coins I went through I’m most bullish on Zilliqa (yes I went through Tezos, EOS, NEO, VeChain, Harmony, Algorand, Cardano etc.). Note that this is not investment advice and although it's a thorough analysis there is obviously some bias involved. Looking forward to what you all think!
 
Fun fact: the name Zilliqa is a play on ‘silica’ silicon dioxide which means “Silicon for the high-throughput consensus computer.”
 
This post is divided into (i) Technology, (ii) Business & Partnerships, and (iii) Marketing & Community. I’ve tried to make the technology part readable for a broad audience. If you’ve ever tried understanding the inner workings of Bitcoin and Ethereum you should be able to grasp most parts. Otherwise just skim through and once you are zoning out head to the next part.
 
Technology and some more:
 
Introduction The technology is one of the main reasons why I’m so bullish on Zilliqa. First thing you see on their website is: “Zilliqa is a high-performance, high-security blockchain platform for enterprises and next-generation applications.” These are some bold statements.
 
Before we deep dive into the technology let’s take a step back in time first as they have quite the history. The initial research paper from which Zilliqa originated dates back to August 2016: Elastico: A Secure Sharding Protocol For Open Blockchains where Loi Luu (Kyber Network) is one of the co-authors. Other ideas that led to the development of what Zilliqa has become today are: Bitcoin-NG, collective signing CoSi, ByzCoin and Omniledger.
 
The technical white paper was made public in August 2017 and since then they have achieved everything stated in the white paper and also created their own open source intermediate level smart contract language called Scilla (functional programming language similar to OCaml) too.
 
Mainnet is live since end of January 2019 with daily transaction rate growing continuously. About a week ago mainnet reached 5 million transactions, 500.000+ addresses in total along with 2400 nodes keeping the network decentralised and secure. Circulating supply is nearing 11 billion and currently only mining rewards are left. Maximum supply is 21 billion with annual inflation being 7.13% currently and will only decrease with time.
 
Zilliqa realised early on that the usage of public cryptocurrencies and smart contracts were increasing but decentralised, secure and scalable alternatives were lacking in the crypto space. They proposed to apply sharding onto a public smart contract blockchain where the transaction rate increases almost linear with the increase in amount of nodes. More nodes = higher transaction throughput and increased decentralisation. Sharding comes in many forms and Zilliqa uses network-, transaction- and computational sharding. Network sharding opens up the possibility of using transaction- and computational sharding on top. Zilliqa does not use state sharding for now. We’ll come back to this later.
 
Before we continue disecting how Zilliqa achieves such from a technological standpoint it’s good to keep in mind that a blockchain being decentralised and secure and scalable is still one of the main hurdles in allowing widespread usage of decentralised networks. In my opinion this needs to be solved first before blockchains can get to the point where they can create and add large scale value. So I invite you to read the next section to grasp the underlying fundamentals. Because after all these premises need to be true otherwise there isn’t a fundamental case to be bullish on Zilliqa, right?
 
Down the rabbit hole
 
How have they achieved this? Let’s define the basics first: key players on Zilliqa are the users and the miners. A user is anybody who uses the blockchain to transfer funds or run smart contracts. Miners are the (shard) nodes in the network who run the consensus protocol and get rewarded for their service in Zillings (ZIL). The mining network is divided into several smaller networks called shards, which is also referred to as ‘network sharding’. Miners subsequently are randomly assigned to a shard by another set of miners called DS (Directory Service) nodes. The regular shards process transactions and the outputs of these shards are eventually combined by the DS shard as they reach consensus on the final state. More on how these DS shards reach consensus (via pBFT) will be explained later on.
 
The Zilliqa network produces two types of blocks: DS blocks and Tx blocks. One DS Block consists of 100 Tx Blocks. And as previously mentioned there are two types of nodes concerned with reaching consensus: shard nodes and DS nodes. Becoming a shard node or DS node is being defined by the result of a PoW cycle (Ethash) at the beginning of the DS Block. All candidate mining nodes compete with each other and run the PoW (Proof-of-Work) cycle for 60 seconds and the submissions achieving the highest difficulty will be allowed on the network. And to put it in perspective: the average difficulty for one DS node is ~ 2 Th/s equaling 2.000.000 Mh/s or 55 thousand+ GeForce GTX 1070 / 8 GB GPUs at 35.4 Mh/s. Each DS Block 10 new DS nodes are allowed. And a shard node needs to provide around 8.53 GH/s currently (around 240 GTX 1070s). Dual mining ETH/ETC and ZIL is possible and can be done via mining software such as Phoenix and Claymore. There are pools and if you have large amounts of hashing power (Ethash) available you could mine solo.
 
The PoW cycle of 60 seconds is a peak performance and acts as an entry ticket to the network. The entry ticket is called a sybil resistance mechanism and makes it incredibly hard for adversaries to spawn lots of identities and manipulate the network with these identities. And after every 100 Tx Blocks which corresponds to roughly 1,5 hour this PoW process repeats. In between these 1,5 hour no PoW needs to be done meaning Zilliqa’s energy consumption to keep the network secure is low. For more detailed information on how mining works click here.
Okay, hats off to you. You have made it this far. Before we go any deeper down the rabbit hole we first must understand why Zilliqa goes through all of the above technicalities and understand a bit more what a blockchain on a more fundamental level is. Because the core of Zilliqa’s consensus protocol relies on the usage of pBFT (practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance) we need to know more about state machines and their function. Navigate to Viewblock, a Zilliqa block explorer, and just come back to this article. We will use this site to navigate through a few concepts.
 
We have established that Zilliqa is a public and distributed blockchain. Meaning that everyone with an internet connection can send ZILs, trigger smart contracts etc. and there is no central authority who fully controls the network. Zilliqa and other public and distributed blockchains (like Bitcoin and Ethereum) can also be defined as state machines.
 
Taking the liberty of paraphrasing examples and definitions given by Samuel Brooks’ medium article, he describes the definition of a blockchain (like Zilliqa) as:
“A peer-to-peer, append-only datastore that uses consensus to synchronise cryptographically-secure data”.
 
Next he states that: >“blockchains are fundamentally systems for managing valid state transitions”.* For some more context, I recommend reading the whole medium article to get a better grasp of the definitions and understanding of state machines. Nevertheless, let’s try to simplify and compile it into a single paragraph. Take traffic lights as an example: all its states (red, amber and green) are predefined, all possible outcomes are known and it doesn’t matter if you encounter the traffic light today or tomorrow. It will still behave the same. Managing the states of a traffic light can be done by triggering a sensor on the road or pushing a button resulting in one traffic lights’ state going from green to red (via amber) and another light from red to green.
 
With public blockchains like Zilliqa this isn’t so straightforward and simple. It started with block #1 almost 1,5 years ago and every 45 seconds or so a new block linked to the previous block is being added. Resulting in a chain of blocks with transactions in it that everyone can verify from block #1 to the current #647.000+ block. The state is ever changing and the states it can find itself in are infinite. And while the traffic light might work together in tandem with various other traffic lights, it’s rather insignificant comparing it to a public blockchain. Because Zilliqa consists of 2400 nodes who need to work together to achieve consensus on what the latest valid state is while some of these nodes may have latency or broadcast issues, drop offline or are deliberately trying to attack the network etc.
 
Now go back to the Viewblock page take a look at the amount of transaction, addresses, block and DS height and then hit refresh. Obviously as expected you see new incremented values on one or all parameters. And how did the Zilliqa blockchain manage to transition from a previous valid state to the latest valid state? By using pBFT to reach consensus on the latest valid state.
 
After having obtained the entry ticket, miners execute pBFT to reach consensus on the ever changing state of the blockchain. pBFT requires a series of network communication between nodes, and as such there is no GPU involved (but CPU). Resulting in the total energy consumed to keep the blockchain secure, decentralised and scalable being low.
 
pBFT stands for practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance and is an optimisation on the Byzantine Fault Tolerant algorithm. To quote Blockonomi: “In the context of distributed systems, Byzantine Fault Tolerance is the ability of a distributed computer network to function as desired and correctly reach a sufficient consensus despite malicious components (nodes) of the system failing or propagating incorrect information to other peers.” Zilliqa is such a distributed computer network and depends on the honesty of the nodes (shard and DS) to reach consensus and to continuously update the state with the latest block. If pBFT is a new term for you I can highly recommend the Blockonomi article.
 
The idea of pBFT was introduced in 1999 - one of the authors even won a Turing award for it - and it is well researched and applied in various blockchains and distributed systems nowadays. If you want more advanced information than the Blockonomi link provides click here. And if you’re in between Blockonomi and University of Singapore read the Zilliqa Design Story Part 2 dating from October 2017.
Quoting from the Zilliqa tech whitepaper: “pBFT relies upon a correct leader (which is randomly selected) to begin each phase and proceed when the sufficient majority exists. In case the leader is byzantine it can stall the entire consensus protocol. To address this challenge, pBFT offers a view change protocol to replace the byzantine leader with another one.”
 
pBFT can tolerate ⅓ of the nodes being dishonest (offline counts as Byzantine = dishonest) and the consensus protocol will function without stalling or hiccups. Once there are more than ⅓ of dishonest nodes but no more than ⅔ the network will be stalled and a view change will be triggered to elect a new DS leader. Only when more than ⅔ of the nodes are dishonest (>66%) double spend attacks become possible.
 
If the network stalls no transactions can be processed and one has to wait until a new honest leader has been elected. When the mainnet was just launched and in its early phases, view changes happened regularly. As of today the last stalling of the network - and view change being triggered - was at the end of October 2019.
 
Another benefit of using pBFT for consensus besides low energy is the immediate finality it provides. Once your transaction is included in a block and the block is added to the chain it’s done. Lastly, take a look at this article where three types of finality are being defined: probabilistic, absolute and economic finality. Zilliqa falls under the absolute finality (just like Tendermint for example). Although lengthy already we skipped through some of the inner workings from Zilliqa’s consensus: read the Zilliqa Design Story Part 3 and you will be close to having a complete picture on it. Enough about PoW, sybil resistance mechanism, pBFT etc. Another thing we haven’t looked at yet is the amount of decentralisation.
 
Decentralisation
 
Currently there are four shards, each one of them consisting of 600 nodes. 1 shard with 600 so called DS nodes (Directory Service - they need to achieve a higher difficulty than shard nodes) and 1800 shard nodes of which 250 are shard guards (centralised nodes controlled by the team). The amount of shard guards has been steadily declining from 1200 in January 2019 to 250 as of May 2020. On the Viewblock statistics you can see that many of the nodes are being located in the US but those are only the (CPU parts of the) shard nodes who perform pBFT. There is no data from where the PoW sources are coming. And when the Zilliqa blockchain starts reaching their transaction capacity limit, a network upgrade needs to be executed to lift the current cap of maximum 2400 nodes to allow more nodes and formation of more shards which will allow to network to keep on scaling according to demand.
Besides shard nodes there are also seed nodes. The main role of seed nodes is to serve as direct access points (for end users and clients) to the core Zilliqa network that validates transactions. Seed nodes consolidate transaction requests and forward these to the lookup nodes (another type of nodes) for distribution to the shards in the network. Seed nodes also maintain the entire transaction history and the global state of the blockchain which is needed to provide services such as block explorers. Seed nodes in the Zilliqa network are comparable to Infura on Ethereum.
 
The seed nodes were first only operated by Zilliqa themselves, exchanges and Viewblock. Operators of seed nodes like exchanges had no incentive to open them for the greater public.They were centralised at first. Decentralisation at the seed nodes level has been steadily rolled out since March 2020 ( Zilliqa Improvement Proposal 3 ). Currently the amount of seed nodes is being increased, they are public facing and at the same time PoS is applied to incentivize seed node operators and make it possible for ZIL holders to stake and earn passive yields. Important distinction: seed nodes are not involved with consensus! That is still PoW as entry ticket and pBFT for the actual consensus.
 
5% of the block rewards are being assigned to seed nodes (from the beginning in 2019) and those are being used to pay out ZIL stakers.The 5% block rewards with an annual yield of 10.03% translates to roughly 610 MM ZILs in total that can be staked. Exchanges use the custodial variant of staking and wallets like Moonlet will use the non custodial version (starting in Q3 2020). Staking is being done by sending ZILs to a smart contract created by Zilliqa and audited by Quantstamp.
 
With a high amount of DS & shard nodes and seed nodes becoming more decentralised too, Zilliqa qualifies for the label of decentralised in my opinion.
 
Smart contracts
 
Let me start by saying I’m not a developer and my programming skills are quite limited. So I‘m taking the ELI5 route (maybe 12) but if you are familiar with Javascript, Solidity or specifically OCaml please head straight to Scilla - read the docs to get a good initial grasp of how Zilliqa’s smart contract language Scilla works and if you ask yourself “why another programming language?” check this article. And if you want to play around with some sample contracts in an IDE click here. Faucet can be found here. And more information on architecture, dapp development and API can be found on the Developer Portal.
If you are more into listening and watching: check this recent webinar explaining Zilliqa and Scilla. Link is time stamped so you’ll start right away with a platform introduction, R&D roadmap 2020 and afterwards a proper Scilla introduction.
 
Generalised: programming languages can be divided into being ‘object oriented’ or ‘functional’. Here is an ELI5 given by software development academy: > “all programmes have two basic components, data – what the programme knows – and behaviour – what the programme can do with that data. So object-oriented programming states that combining data and related behaviours in one place, is called “object”, which makes it easier to understand how a particular program works. On the other hand, functional programming argues that data and behaviour are different things and should be separated to ensure their clarity.”
 
Scilla is on the functional side and shares similarities with OCaml: > OCaml is a general purpose programming language with an emphasis on expressiveness and safety. It has an advanced type system that helps catch your mistakes without getting in your way. It's used in environments where a single mistake can cost millions and speed matters, is supported by an active community, and has a rich set of libraries and development tools. For all its power, OCaml is also pretty simple, which is one reason it's often used as a teaching language.
 
Scilla is blockchain agnostic, can be implemented onto other blockchains as well, is recognised by academics and won a so called Distinguished Artifact Award award at the end of last year.
 
One of the reasons why the Zilliqa team decided to create their own programming language focused on preventing smart contract vulnerabilities safety is that adding logic on a blockchain, programming, means that you cannot afford to make mistakes. Otherwise it could cost you. It’s all great and fun blockchains being immutable but updating your code because you found a bug isn’t the same as with a regular web application for example. And with smart contracts it inherently involves cryptocurrencies in some form thus value.
 
Another difference with programming languages on a blockchain is gas. Every transaction you do on a smart contract platform like Zilliqa for Ethereum costs gas. With gas you basically pay for computational costs. Sending a ZIL from address A to address B costs 0.001 ZIL currently. Smart contracts are more complex, often involve various functions and require more gas (if gas is a new concept click here ).
 
So with Scilla, similar to Solidity, you need to make sure that “every function in your smart contract will run as expected without hitting gas limits. An improper resource analysis may lead to situations where funds may get stuck simply because a part of the smart contract code cannot be executed due to gas limits. Such constraints are not present in traditional software systems”. Scilla design story part 1
 
Some examples of smart contract issues you’d want to avoid are: leaking funds, ‘unexpected changes to critical state variables’ (example: someone other than you setting his or her address as the owner of the smart contract after creation) or simply killing a contract.
 
Scilla also allows for formal verification. Wikipedia to the rescue:
In the context of hardware and software systems, formal verification is the act of proving or disproving the correctness of intended algorithms underlying a system with respect to a certain formal specification or property, using formal methods of mathematics.
 
Formal verification can be helpful in proving the correctness of systems such as: cryptographic protocols, combinational circuits, digital circuits with internal memory, and software expressed as source code.
 
Scilla is being developed hand-in-hand with formalization of its semantics and its embedding into the Coq proof assistant — a state-of-the art tool for mechanized proofs about properties of programs.”
 
Simply put, with Scilla and accompanying tooling developers can be mathematically sure and proof that the smart contract they’ve written does what he or she intends it to do.
 
Smart contract on a sharded environment and state sharding
 
There is one more topic I’d like to touch on: smart contract execution in a sharded environment (and what is the effect of state sharding). This is a complex topic. I’m not able to explain it any easier than what is posted here. But I will try to compress the post into something easy to digest.
 
Earlier on we have established that Zilliqa can process transactions in parallel due to network sharding. This is where the linear scalability comes from. We can define simple transactions: a transaction from address A to B (Category 1), a transaction where a user interacts with one smart contract (Category 2) and the most complex ones where triggering a transaction results in multiple smart contracts being involved (Category 3). The shards are able to process transactions on their own without interference of the other shards. With Category 1 transactions that is doable, with Category 2 transactions sometimes if that address is in the same shard as the smart contract but with Category 3 you definitely need communication between the shards. Solving that requires to make a set of communication rules the protocol needs to follow in order to process all transactions in a generalised fashion.
 
And this is where the downsides of state sharding comes in currently. All shards in Zilliqa have access to the complete state. Yes the state size (0.1 GB at the moment) grows and all of the nodes need to store it but it also means that they don’t need to shop around for information available on other shards. Requiring more communication and adding more complexity. Computer science knowledge and/or developer knowledge required links if you want to dig further: Scilla - language grammar Scilla - Foundations for Verifiable Decentralised Computations on a Blockchain Gas Accounting NUS x Zilliqa: Smart contract language workshop
 
Easier to follow links on programming Scilla https://learnscilla.com/home Ivan on Tech
 
Roadmap / Zilliqa 2.0
 
There is no strict defined roadmap but here are topics being worked on. And via the Zilliqa website there is also more information on the projects they are working on.
 
Business & Partnerships  
It’s not only technology in which Zilliqa seems to be excelling as their ecosystem has been expanding and starting to grow rapidly. The project is on a mission to provide OpenFinance (OpFi) to the world and Singapore is the right place to be due to its progressive regulations and futuristic thinking. Singapore has taken a proactive approach towards cryptocurrencies by introducing the Payment Services Act 2019 (PS Act). Among other things, the PS Act will regulate intermediaries dealing with certain cryptocurrencies, with a particular focus on consumer protection and anti-money laundering. It will also provide a stable regulatory licensing and operating framework for cryptocurrency entities, effectively covering all crypto businesses and exchanges based in Singapore. According to PWC 82% of the surveyed executives in Singapore reported blockchain initiatives underway and 13% of them have already brought the initiatives live to the market. There is also an increasing list of organisations that are starting to provide digital payment services. Moreover, Singaporean blockchain developers Building Cities Beyond has recently created an innovation $15 million grant to encourage development on its ecosystem. This all suggest that Singapore tries to position itself as (one of) the leading blockchain hubs in the world.
 
Zilliqa seems to already taking advantage of this and recently helped launch Hg Exchange on their platform, together with financial institutions PhillipCapital, PrimePartners and Fundnel. Hg Exchange, which is now approved by the Monetary Authority of Singapore (MAS), uses smart contracts to represent digital assets. Through Hg Exchange financial institutions worldwide can use Zilliqa's safe-by-design smart contracts to enable the trading of private equities. For example, think of companies such as Grab, AirBnB, SpaceX that are not available for public trading right now. Hg Exchange will allow investors to buy shares of private companies & unicorns and capture their value before an IPO. Anquan, the main company behind Zilliqa, has also recently announced that they became a partner and shareholder in TEN31 Bank, which is a fully regulated bank allowing for tokenization of assets and is aiming to bridge the gap between conventional banking and the blockchain world. If STOs, the tokenization of assets, and equity trading will continue to increase, then Zilliqa’s public blockchain would be the ideal candidate due to its strategic positioning, partnerships, regulatory compliance and the technology that is being built on top of it.
 
What is also very encouraging is their focus on banking the un(der)banked. They are launching a stablecoin basket starting with XSGD. As many of you know, stablecoins are currently mostly used for trading. However, Zilliqa is actively trying to broaden the use case of stablecoins. I recommend everybody to read this text that Amrit Kumar wrote (one of the co-founders). These stablecoins will be integrated in the traditional markets and bridge the gap between the crypto world and the traditional world. This could potentially revolutionize and legitimise the crypto space if retailers and companies will for example start to use stablecoins for payments or remittances, instead of it solely being used for trading.
 
Zilliqa also released their DeFi strategic roadmap (dating November 2019) which seems to be aligning well with their OpFi strategy. A non-custodial DEX is coming to Zilliqa made by Switcheo which allows cross-chain trading (atomic swaps) between ETH, EOS and ZIL based tokens. They also signed a Memorandum of Understanding for a (soon to be announced) USD stablecoin. And as Zilliqa is all about regulations and being compliant, I’m speculating on it to be a regulated USD stablecoin. Furthermore, XSGD is already created and visible on block explorer and XIDR (Indonesian Stablecoin) is also coming soon via StraitsX. Here also an overview of the Tech Stack for Financial Applications from September 2019. Further quoting Amrit Kumar on this:
 
There are two basic building blocks in DeFi/OpFi though: 1) stablecoins as you need a non-volatile currency to get access to this market and 2) a dex to be able to trade all these financial assets. The rest are build on top of these blocks.
 
So far, together with our partners and community, we have worked on developing these building blocks with XSGD as a stablecoin. We are working on bringing a USD-backed stablecoin as well. We will soon have a decentralised exchange developed by Switcheo. And with HGX going live, we are also venturing into the tokenization space. More to come in the future.”*
 
Additionally, they also have this ZILHive initiative that injects capital into projects. There have been already 6 waves of various teams working on infrastructure, innovation and research, and they are not from ASEAN or Singapore only but global: see Grantees breakdown by country. Over 60 project teams from over 20 countries have contributed to Zilliqa's ecosystem. This includes individuals and teams developing wallets, explorers, developer toolkits, smart contract testing frameworks, dapps, etc. As some of you may know, Unstoppable Domains (UD) blew up when they launched on Zilliqa. UD aims to replace cryptocurrency addresses with a human readable name and allows for uncensorable websites. Zilliqa will probably be the only one able to handle all these transactions onchain due to ability to scale and its resulting low fees which is why the UD team launched this on Zilliqa in the first place. Furthermore, Zilliqa also has a strong emphasis on security, compliance, and privacy, which is why they partnered with companies like Elliptic, ChainSecurity (part of PwC Switzerland), and Incognito. Their sister company Aqilliz (Zilliqa spelled backwards) focuses on revolutionizing the digital advertising space and is doing interesting things like using Zilliqa to track outdoor digital ads with companies like Foodpanda.
 
Zilliqa is listed on nearly all major exchanges, having several different fiat-gateways and recently have been added to Binance’s margin trading and futures trading with really good volume. They also have a very impressive team with good credentials and experience. They dont just have “tech people”. They have a mix of tech people, business people, marketeers, scientists, and more. Naturally, it's good to have a mix of people with different skill sets if you work in the crypto space.
 
Marketing & Community
 
Zilliqa has a very strong community. If you just follow their Twitter their engagement is much higher for a coin that has approximately 80k followers. They also have been ‘coin of the day’ by LunarCrush many times. LunarCrush tracks real-time cryptocurrency value and social data. According to their data it seems Zilliqa has a more fundamental and deeper understanding of marketing and community engagement than almost all other coins. While almost all coins have been a bit frozen in the last months, Zilliqa seems to be on its own bull run. It was somewhere in the 100s a few months ago and is currently ranked #46 on CoinGecko. Their official Telegram also has over 20k people and is very active, and their community channel which is over 7k now is more active and larger than many other official channels. Their local communities) also seem to be growing.
 
Moreover, their community started ‘Zillacracy’ together with the Zilliqa core team ( see www.zillacracy.com ). It’s a community run initiative where people from all over the world are now helping with marketing and development on Zilliqa. Since its launch in February 2020 they have been doing a lot and will also run their own non custodial seed node for staking. This seed node will also allow them to start generating revenue for them to become a self sustaining entity that could potentially scale up to become a decentralized company working in parallel with the Zilliqa core team. Comparing it to all the other smart contract platforms (e.g. Cardano, EOS, Tezos etc.) they don't seem to have started a similar initiatives (correct me if I’m wrong though). This suggest in my opinion that these other smart contract platforms do not fully understand how to utilize the ‘power of the community’. This is something you cannot ‘buy with money’ and gives many projects in the space a disadvantage.
 
Zilliqa also released two social products called SocialPay and Zeeves. SocialPay allows users to earn ZILs while tweeting with a specific hashtag. They have recently used it in partnership with the Singapore Red Cross for a marketing campaign after their initial pilot program. It seems like a very valuable social product with a good use case. I can see a lot of traditional companies entering the space through this product, which they seem to suggest will happen. Tokenizing hashtags with smart contracts to get network effect is a very smart and innovative idea.
 
Regarding Zeeves, this is a tipping bot for Telegram. They already have 1000s of signups and they plan to keep upgrading it for more and more people to use it (e.g. they recently have added a quiz features). They also use it during AMAs to reward people in real time. It’s a very smart approach to grow their communities and get familiar with ZIL. I can see this becoming very big on Telegram. This tool suggests, again, that the Zilliqa team has a deeper understanding what the crypto space and community needs and is good at finding the right innovative tools to grow and scale.
 
To be honest, I haven’t covered everything (i’m also reaching the character limited haha). So many updates happening lately that it's hard to keep up, such as the International Monetary Fund mentioning Zilliqa in their report, custodial and non-custodial Staking, Binance Margin, Futures & Widget, entering the Indian market, and more. The Head of Marketing Colin Miles has also released this as an overview of what is coming next. And last but not least, Vitalik Buterin has been mentioning Zilliqa lately acknowledging Zilliqa and mentioning that both projects have a lot of room to grow. There is much more info of course and a good part of it has been served to you on a silver platter. I invite you to continue researching by yourself :-) And if you have any comments or questions please post here!
submitted by haveyouheardaboutit to CryptoCurrency [link] [comments]

Mousecoin Network May 2020 Report

Mousecoin Network May 2020 Report

MAY 2020 UPDATE

The last month in the world of Mousecoin has been HUGE! There have been many changes, the addition of new awesome ways to earn MIC3 including our Faucets page and the Phoneum Games. We have also seen the launch of our Community Membership, which entitles each registered user to receive up to 200,000 MIC3 per month. We hope you are all keeping safe and are happy to provide you with our Mousecoin Network May 2020 Report.
MOUSECOIN IN GAMES!!
FINALLY, after months of negotiation and with the help of Phoneum, Mousecoin has partnered with Phoneum to be included in two of the most popular Phoneum crypto games currently available. We have added a new Games page, whiche features all the information and link for the games, with more to come. Here is the run down:

Crypto Treasures

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Crypto Treasures is a game, where players complete various quests, trivia and mini games to unlock Gold (in-game currency), Treasure Chests, Items, Collectibles, and various Crypto currencies, including the featured Mousecoin (MIC3).

Crypto Planet

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Visit a new type of planet, one that allows you to earn real cryptocurrencies while playing a beautiful and futuristic game. The main objective is to extract the valuable resources of the planet: Crystals. There is a special machine designed specifically to dig up the Crystals automatically and deliver them to you. All you have to do is activate the Digger and after 4 hours, it will have the resources ready to be claimed.
COMMUNITY MEMBERSHIP

Earn up to 200,000 MIC3 Per Month!

At the beginning of last month we began establishing our Community Membership which offers all registered Mousecoin Members a share of the rewards earned from the Community Fund just for being a member and following Mousecoin on all of our social media. As we come to the end of the first month we are currently in the process of checking all registrations and working out payments. We have also updated the profile page to include a Member News tab, Verified Notifications for each Social Media and a Monthly Payment History section. We are currently working on verifying all accounts registered before 1/6/2020, and should have all of these processed in the next few days, with all payment going out before the end of the week.

Become a part of the Mousecoin (MIC3) Community.Membership is FREE and it comes with HUGE bonuses!!

Our Community is important to us, it is the backbone of the Mousecoin Network. Every follow, like, interaction, comment and re-post of our content members of the Mousecoin Community do all helps us to grow awareness of Mousecoin, growing and strengthening our community. To show our appreciation for your loyalty we are rewarding every Mousecoin Member with a regular monthly payment of up to 200,000 MIC3 just for joining and remaining a member of our social media(s). To become a member all you need to do is complete the registration form below, making sure to become and stay a member on our social media(s) and start EARNING!!! Each of our social media accounts (listed below) that you follow entitles you to a portion of the potential 200,000 MIC3 you can earn each month. If you only follow on Twitter, you will only get 25,000 MIC3 per month, follow on 2 socials and get 50,000 MIC3, etc.
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TELEGRAM Become and stay a member of: https://t.me/Mousecoin_MIC3
Get 25,000 MIC3 PeMonth
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TELEGRAM ANNOUNCEMENTS Become and stay a member of: https://t.me/MousecoinOfficial
Get 25,000 MIC3 PeMonth
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DISCORD Become and stay a member of: https://discord.gg/yGTmuG6
Get 25,000 MIC3 PeMonth
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TWITTER Become and stay a member of: https://twitter.com/MIC3_Official
Get 25,000 MIC3 PeMonth
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FACEBOOK Like and Follow: https://www.facebook.com/MousecoinOfficial/
Get 25,000 MIC3 PeMonth
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REDDIT Become and stay a member of: https://www.reddit.com/useMicmouse
Get 25,000 MIC3 PeMonth
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MEDIUM Become and stay a member of: https://medium.com/@mousecoin
Get 25,000 MIC3 PeMonth
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INSTAGRAM Become and stay a member of: https://www.instagram.com/mousecoin/
Get 25,000 MIC3 PeMonth
PLEASE NOTE: You must register before the 1st of each month in order to qualify for the previous months payment. All payments will be processed in the first week of the following month, once the accounts have been verified. You can check the process of you social account verification’s, as well as your monthly payment status on your account page. You must remain a member of the social media to receive the reward.
For anyone that isn’t already a member, you can find all of the information on our Community Member Registration Page https://mousecoin.network/members/registe
WALLETS, SETUP GUIDES & SNAPSHOTS
Just a reminder for the community and also for any new members, we have added a Wallet Setup Guides page, which takes any first time user of Mousecoin step-by-step through the process of installing their Mousecoin wallet and getting it online. The guide uses the latest blockchain snapshot found on the Wallet Downloads Page in the example explanation meaning that all new members of the Mousecoin community will be able to get their wallets online faster as the sync time should be minimal. We will be updating the blockchain snapshot at least once every month to ensure that people have access to the most up to date blockchain info. The latest blockchain snapshot was performed on the 1st June 2020.
The wallet version is currenty V1.0.0.0, with future releases of the Mousecoin wallet coming soon
If you are new to crypto currency or just after a bit of guidance setting up the Mousecoin wallet, check out our Wallet Setup Guides
📷 Windows
📷 Raspberry Pi
📷Wallet & Blockchain Snapshot Download (UPDATED 01-06-2020)
POS & STAKING
In the last month we asked the community if they would be interested in being a part of a Community Staking Pool. After investigations into this finding security flaws in most platforms, as well as the lack of interest from members of the community we have decided to not go ahead with the Community Staking Pool. While we understand that there are members of the Mousecoin Community that are unable to stake themselves for whatever reason, and that there are a number of staking platforms that offer pool staking for MIC3 to help these people stake, we will not officially be supporting any staking platforms. We ask all Community members using these or thinking about using these to keep in mind that any MIC3 hosted on these platforms is not in their wallets, and therefore not controlled by them. Do proper investigations into any platform that you use for this as there is always the possibility of loss. We encourage all members of the Mousecoin Community to stake from their own wallet (where possible) as this helps us to secure the network. If you need help setting up your wallet, go to our Wallet Setup Guides page for step-by-step guides on setting up your Mousecoin wallet.
MOUSECOIN FAUCETS
We have updated the Mousecoin (MIC3) Faucets Page:
To make things clearer and we will be adding more faucets soon!
EXCHANGES
Last month we saw the edition of the USDT/MIC3 pair to nanu exchange. In our efforts to increase exposure of Mousecoin, we are still attempting to list on both ATAIX and Unnamed.Exhchange.
ATAIX We have risen to 18th position in the voting list on ATAIX, but we still need your votes. Remember you can vote every 24 hours for this listing, and you can share in 125,000,000 MIC3
📷
Unnamed.Exhchange The exchange listing for Unnamed.Exhchange is 0.05 BTC. For anyone unfamiliar with the exchange there are two ways that you can donate to the listing:
1. If you are already a member of, or wish to be a member of Unnamed.Exhchange (and why wouldn’t you), you can put funds towards our listing by tipping us through the trollbox (Mousecoins). If you wish to be a member of Unnamed.Exhchange, you can register here: https://www.unnamed.exchange/Login/Register
2. You can also donate to the listing fee through the following addresses: BTC – bc1qmaqzhfqcw0urva0rtgfz5qvq4rw7kdnp6j7754 LTC – ltc1qc775eeftdde2jrevnyukrd2w9853jy5gmtv6rn DOGE – DEnBpriaFnKiNeBv6Q7MVxMg5hLv5urQFg UTIP – AUTyu2JhGAaCkM3KAmeBopto2bNBchNJfE
If you would like to donate in another crypto available on Unnamed.Exhchange, we have opened up the chat on the Discord channel HERE to assist with this. Please request the address and we will provide it for you. ANY AND ALL DONATIONS ARE WELCOME!! This is a good exchange and getting a listing her should help lift the profile of MIC3.
We will be reporting balances to the discord channel https://discord.gg/cYuA8FA
COMMUNITY FUND
📷
In the last month the Community Fund has undergone a huge amount of change. We have completely moved all of our remaining balances away from 4Stake, with the MIC3 going to the Community Fund MIC3 account and the remaining crypto’s towards out listing on Unnamed.Exhchange. The Community Fund page on the website has also been updated to reflect all of the changes. It is an exciting time for the Community Fund as we have now reached a balance that will sustain itself. This is why we have introduced the Community Member payment, and are able to sustain the faucets we have on https://erex.io/freecoin/ and in the Phoneum Games. There is still more to come!
📷

UPDATED MOUSECOIN EXCHANGES

📷 📷📷 📷📷📷📷
📷 📷📷

📷📷📷📷

📷📷📷📷📷📷📷 📷 📷📷

UPDATED MOUSECOIN LINKS

GENERAL: Wallets https://mousecoin.network/mousecoin-wallets/ Explorer https://mousecoin.network/explore Github https://github.com/trapier21/mic3-master About Staking https://mousecoin.network/mousecoin-wallets/staking-mousecoin/
NEWS/UPDATES: BitcoinTalk https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5081656.0 Discord https://discord.gg/yGTmuG6 Telegram Mousecoin Official News https://t.me/MousecoinOfficial Twitter https://twitter.com/CoinMic3 Medium https://medium.com/@mousecoin
COMMUNITY FUND: Telegram https://t.me/MIC3CommunityFund Facebook https://www.facebook.com/MousecoinCommunityFund/
SUPPORT: Discord https://discord.gg/bD4zKCC Mousecoin English https://t.me/Mousecoin\_ENG
FACEBOOK: Mousecoin English https://www.facebook.com/MousecoinOfficial/ Mousecoin Portuguese https://www.facebook.com/Mousecoin-Mic3-Portuguese-100360761416673
TELEGRAM: Mousecoin English https://t.me/Mousecoin\_ENG Mousecoin Portuguese https://t.me/MIC3Portuguese Mousecoin Russian https://t.me/MIC3Russian Mousecoin Korean https://t.me/MIC3Korean Mousecoin Spanish https://t.me/MIC3Spanish Mousecoin Australia https://t.me/MIC3\_Australia

LET’S GROW OUR COMMUNITY!

submitted by Micmouse to u/Micmouse [link] [comments]

Introducing the new SOUR SLP token! Tip good content, promote SLP, receive BCH Airdrops & share the SOUR!

Introducing the new SOUR SLP token! Tip good content, promote SLP, receive BCH Airdrops & share the SOUR!

SOUR SLP token created by KeepBitcoinFree.org
More info about SOUR
SOUR Token ID: 6448381f9649ecacd8c30189cfbfee71a91b6b9738ea494fe33f8b8b51cbfca0
SOUR Token Genesis Transaction on BCH Block Explorer.
***\[ *SOUR Token Faucet - Share the SOUR** ](http://slp-faucet.ddns.net/)**\*\*\*\***
More info about KeepBitcoinFree.org, Simple Ledger Protocol & the SLP Explorer!
Some of us like it Spicy & some like it Sweet. Then there are those of us who like it SOUR! Introducing the new SOUR token! SOUR is a Simple Ledger Protocol (SLP) token that is built on the Bitcoin Cash blockchain. SOUR will be used as a means for tipping good content as well as rewards for those promoting SLP, Bitcoin Cash and adoption. There will be some upcoming BCH airdrops to SOUR holders that I will be announcing in the near future ;)
There are 42,000,000 SOUR Tokens created & each one is divisible by 8 decimals or 100,000,000 SOURtoshis. That is double the amount of Bitcoin but divisible by the same amount.
Post your SLP address down under (or PM me) and I will share the SOUR & possibly a little Spice I have growing in the garden.
If anyone has any questions about creating a SLP token, forking & adding token icons (for the Bitcoin.com & Simple Ledger explorers) or forking and setting up your own SLP Faucet (which uses Node.js, Express, and SLPJS) - let me know. I have the SOUR faucet running on an Ubuntu 16.04 VPS, running Node.js, managed by PM2 with an apache web server as a proxy. I'm interested to see if it can handle much traffic though.

SOUR claims another victim.
submitted by KeepBitcoinFree_org to Bitcoincash [link] [comments]

Still paying 50 doge reward for good dogecoin, bitcoin, & litecoin related website links submitted to opreturn.net

Hello dogecoin!
A couple weeks ago I mentioned that I'd like to experiment with crowd-sourcing a good collection of website links related to dogecoin, bitcoin, & litecoin. I have a link referral page located at: https://opreturn.net/links/referral/
So far I've had over 250 links added through the referral page, and paid over 10,000 doge to those submitting the referrals. A complete list of all the links referred is located here: https://opreturn.net/links/list
I wanted to mention I still have over 30,000 doge ready to pay out for link referrals. I know there has got to be lots more websites out there related to dogecoin, bitcoin, & litecoin. I'm interested in sites that can be categorized the topic below. If you know a site and would like to recommend it for a 50 doge reward, please submit through the referral page: Thanks!
academic - Studies & analysis from academic institutions
application - Applications utilizing blockchain & cryptocurrency solutions
blockchain analysis - Tools & sites specializing in analyzing blockchains
block explorers - Tools & sites that allow viewing and searching blockchains
coding - Coding, scripting, programming tools & sites
educational - Blockchain & cryptocurrency educational sites
exchanges - Sites that bring together cryptocurrency buyers and sellers
faucets - Sites paying out cryptocurrency in exchange for your time or labor
gaming - Gaming, wagering, prediction markets, or entertainment related
markets - Locations to buy and sell goods and services with cryptocurrency
mempool - Mempool explorers, analysis, tools
network - Network explorers, analysis, tools
news - News, commentary, opinion, blogs, etc
price data - Market, trading & price related technical data
second layer - Second layer solutions for scaling & other specialized applications
tools - Other tools
visualization - Blockchain & network visualization sites & tools
wallets - Software & tools to store & organize private keys & transactions
submitted by opreturn_net to dogecoin [link] [comments]

Massive List of BSV Apps (please comment for new ones or updates/errors etc...)

🔗 means app lives on-chain. i.e. the app/content is hosted on the blockchain, something we take great pride in with BSV.

Block Explorers

Communities

Content

Exchanges

Financial Services

Gaming & Entertainment

News

Onchain Storage

Search Engines

Merchants & Services

Freeview Video / Radio / Podcasts

Tried to list prominent channels, open to all ideas but don't want channels with 3 subscribers and 2 videos. Show your Proof of Work!

Streamanity Video Channels

TODO. Think it is important to separate Freeview (Youtube etc..) from Streaminity, for new people to the space who don't have BSV.

Wallets

Credit: For initial list http://agora.icu and some jim-btc webscraping ;) Pastebin here (to easily reply to any reddit post about lack of apps): https://pastebin.com/qyzf8z2c
submitted by jim-btc to bitcoincashSV [link] [comments]

⚡ Lightning Network Megathread ⚡

Last updated 2018-01-29
This post is a collaboration with the Bitcoin community to create a one-stop source for Lightning Network information.
There are still questions in the FAQ that are unanswered, if you know the answer and can provide a source please do so!

⚡What is the Lightning Network? ⚡

Explanations:

Image Explanations:

Specifications / White Papers

Videos

Lightning Network Experts on Reddit

  • starkbot - (Elizabeth Stark - Lightning Labs)
  • roasbeef - (Olaoluwa Osuntokun - Lightning Labs)
  • stile65 - (Alex Akselrod - Lightning Labs)
  • cfromknecht - (Conner Fromknecht - Lightning Labs)
  • RustyReddit - (Rusty Russell - Blockstream)
  • cdecker - (Christian Decker - Blockstream)
  • Dryja - (Tadge Dryja - Digital Currency Initiative)
  • josephpoon - (Joseph Poon)
  • fdrn - (Fabrice Drouin - ACINQ )
  • pmpadiou - (Pierre-Marie Padiou - ACINQ)

Lightning Network Experts on Twitter

  • @starkness - (Elizabeth Stark - Lightning Labs)
  • @roasbeef - (Olaoluwa Osuntokun - Lightning Labs)
  • @stile65 - (Alex Akselrod - Lightning Labs)
  • @bitconner - (Conner Fromknecht - Lightning Labs)
  • @johanth - (Johan Halseth - Lightning Labs)
  • @bvu - (Bryan Vu - Lightning Labs)
  • @rusty_twit - (Rusty Russell - Blockstream)
  • @snyke - (Christian Decker - Blockstream)
  • @JackMallers - (Jack Mallers - Zap)
  • @tdryja - (Tadge Dryja - Digital Currency Initiative)
  • @jcp - (Joseph Poon)
  • @alexbosworth - (Alex Bosworth - yalls.org)

Medium Posts

Learning Resources

Books

Desktop Interfaces

Web Interfaces

Tutorials and resources

Lightning on Testnet

Lightning Wallets

Place a testnet transaction

Altcoin Trading using Lightning

  • ZigZag - Disclaimer You must trust ZigZag to send to Target Address

Lightning on Mainnet

Warning - Testing should be done on Testnet

Atomic Swaps

Developer Documentation and Resources

Lightning implementations

  • LND - Lightning Network Daemon (Golang)
  • eclair - A Scala implementation of the Lightning Network (Scala)
  • c-lightning - A Lightning Network implementation in C
  • lit - Lightning Network node software (Golang)
  • lightning-onion - Onion Routed Micropayments for the Lightning Network (Golang)
  • lightning-integration - Lightning Integration Testing Framework
  • ptarmigan - C++ BOLT-Compliant Lightning Network Implementation [Incomplete]

Libraries

Lightning Network Visualizers/Explorers

Testnet

Mainnet

Payment Processors

  • BTCPay - Next stable version will include Lightning Network

Community

Slack

IRC

Slack Channel

Discord Channel

Miscellaneous

⚡ Lightning FAQs ⚡

If you can answer please PM me and include source if possible. Feel free to help keep these answers up to date and as brief but correct as possible
Is Lightning Bitcoin?
Yes. You pick a peer and after some setup, create a bitcoin transaction to fund the lightning channel; it’ll then take another transaction to close it and release your funds. You and your peer always hold a bitcoin transaction to get your funds whenever you want: just broadcast to the blockchain like normal. In other words, you and your peer create a shared account, and then use Lightning to securely negotiate who gets how much from that shared account, without waiting for the bitcoin blockchain.
Is the Lightning Network open source?
Yes, Lightning is open source. Anyone can review the code (in the same way as the bitcoin code)
Who owns and controls the Lightning Network?
Similar to the bitcoin network, no one will ever own or control the Lightning Network. The code is open source and free for anyone to download and review. Anyone can run a node and be part of the network.
I’ve heard that Lightning transactions are happening “off-chain”…Does that mean that my bitcoin will be removed from the blockchain?
No, your bitcoin will never leave the blockchain. Instead your bitcoin will be held in a multi-signature address as long as your channel stays open. When the channel is closed; the final transaction will be added to the blockchain. “Off-chain” is not a perfect term, but it is used due to the fact that the transfer of ownership is no longer reflected on the blockchain until the channel is closed.
Do I need a constant connection to run a lightning node?
Not necessarily,
Example: A and B have a channel. 1 BTC each. A sends B 0.5 BTC. B sends back 0.25 BTC. Balance should be A = 0.75, B = 1.25. If A gets disconnected, B can publish the first Tx where the balance was A = 0.5 and B = 1.5. If the node B does in fact attempt to cheat by publishing an old state (such as the A=0.5 and B=1.5 state), this cheat can then be detected on-chain and used to steal the cheaters funds, i.e., A can see the closing transaction, notice it's an old one and grab all funds in the channel (A=2, B=0). The time that A has in order to react to the cheating counterparty is given by the CheckLockTimeVerify (CLTV) in the cheating transaction, which is adjustable. So if A foresees that it'll be able to check in about once every 24 hours it'll require that the CLTV is at least that large, if it's once a week then that's fine too. You definitely do not need to be online and watching the chain 24/7, just make sure to check in once in a while before the CLTV expires. Alternatively you can outsource the watch duties, in order to keep the CLTV timeouts low. This can be achieved both with trusted third parties or untrusted ones (watchtowers). In the case of a unilateral close, e.g., you just go offline and never come back, the other endpoint will have to wait for that timeout to expire to get its funds back. So peers might not accept channels with extremely high CLTV timeouts. -- Source
What Are Lightning’s Advantages?
Tiny payments are possible: since fees are proportional to the payment amount, you can pay a fraction of a cent; accounting is even done in thousandths of a satoshi. Payments are settled instantly: the money is sent in the time it takes to cross the network to your destination and back, typically a fraction of a second.
Does Lightning require Segregated Witness?
Yes, but not in theory. You could make a poorer lightning network without it, which has higher risks when establishing channels (you might have to wait a month if things go wrong!), has limited channel lifetime, longer minimum payment expiry times on each hop, is less efficient and has less robust outsourcing. The entire spec as written today assumes segregated witness, as it solves all these problems.
Can I Send Funds From Lightning to a Normal Bitcoin Address?
No, for now. For the first version of the protocol, if you wanted to send a normal bitcoin transaction using your channel, you have to close it, send the funds, then reopen the channel (3 transactions). In future versions, you and your peer would agree to spend out of your lightning channel funds just like a normal bitcoin payment, allowing you to use your lightning wallet like a normal bitcoin wallet.
Can I Make Money Running a Lightning Node?
Not really. Anyone can set up a node, and so it’s a race to the bottom on fees. In practice, we may see the network use a nominal fee and not change very much, which only provides an incremental incentive to route on a node you’re going to use yourself, and not enough to run one merely for fees. Having clients use criteria other than fees (e.g. randomness, diversity) in route selection will also help this.
What is the release date for Lightning on Mainnet?
Lightning is already being tested on the Mainnet Twitter Link but as for a specific date, Jameson Lopp says it best
Would there be any KYC/AML issues with certain nodes?
Nope, because there is no custody ever involved. It's just like forwarding packets. -- Source
What is the delay time for the recipient of a transaction receiving confirmation?
Furthermore, the Lightning Network scales not with the transaction throughput of the underlying blockchain, but with modern data processing and latency limits - payments can be made nearly as quickly as packets can be sent. -- Source
How does the lightning network prevent centralization?
Bitcoin Stack Exchange Answer
What are Channel Factories and how do they work?
Bitcoin Stack Exchange Answer
How does the Lightning network work in simple terms?
Bitcoin Stack Exchange Answer
How are paths found in Lightning Network?
Bitcoin Stack Exchange Answer
How would the lightning network work between exchanges?
Each exchange will get to decide and need to implement the software into their system, but some ideas have been outlined here: Google Doc - Lightning Exchanges
Note that by virtue of the usual benefits of cost-less, instantaneous transactions, lightning will make arbitrage between exchanges much more efficient and thus lead to consistent pricing across exchange that adopt it. -- Source
How do lightning nodes find other lightning nodes?
Stack Exchange Answer
Does every user need to store the state of the complete Lightning Network?
According to Rusty's calculations we should be able to store 1 million nodes in about 100 MB, so that should work even for mobile phones. Beyond that we have some proposals ready to lighten the load on endpoints, but we'll cross that bridge when we get there. -- Source
Would I need to download the complete state every time I open the App and make a payment?
No you'd remember the information from the last time you started the app and only sync the differences. This is not yet implemented, but it shouldn't be too hard to get a preliminary protocol working if that turns out to be a problem. -- Source
What needs to happen for the Lightning Network to be deployed and what can I do as a user to help?
Lightning is based on participants in the network running lightning node software that enables them to interact with other nodes. This does not require being a full bitcoin node, but you will have to run "lnd", "eclair", or one of the other node softwares listed above.
All lightning wallets have node software integrated into them, because that is necessary to create payment channels and conduct payments on the network, but you can also intentionally run lnd or similar for public benefit - e.g. you can hold open payment channels or channels with higher volume, than you need for your own transactions. You would be compensated in modest fees by those who transact across your node with multi-hop payments. -- Source
Is there anyway for someone who isn't a developer to meaningfully contribute?
Sure, you can help write up educational material. You can learn and read more about the tech at http://dev.lightning.community/resources. You can test the various desktop and mobile apps out there (Lightning Desktop, Zap, Eclair apps). -- Source
Do I need to be a miner to be a Lightning Network node?
No -- Source
Do I need to run a full Bitcoin node to run a lightning node?
lit doesn't depend on having your own full node -- it automatically connects to full nodes on the network. -- Source
LND uses a light client mode, so it doesn't require a full node. The name of the light client it uses is called neutrino
How does the lightning network stop "Cheating" (Someone broadcasting an old transaction)?
Upon opening a channel, the two endpoints first agree on a reserve value, below which the channel balance may not drop. This is to make sure that both endpoints always have some skin in the game as rustyreddit puts it :-)
For a cheat to become worth it, the opponent has to be absolutely sure that you cannot retaliate against him during the timeout. So he has to make sure you never ever get network connectivity during that time. Having someone else also watching for channel closures and notifying you, or releasing a canned retaliation, makes this even harder for the attacker. This is because if he misjudged you being truly offline you can retaliate by grabbing all of its funds. Spotty connections, DDoS, and similar will not provide the attacker the necessary guarantees to make cheating worthwhile. Any form of uncertainty about your online status acts as a deterrent to the other endpoint. -- Source
How many times would someone need to open and close their lightning channels?
You typically want to have more than one channel open at any given time for redundancy's sake. And we imagine open and close will probably be automated for the most part. In fact we already have a feature in LND called autopilot that can automatically open channels for a user.
Frequency will depend whether the funds are needed on-chain or more useful on LN. -- Source
Will the lightning network reduce BTC Liquidity due to "locking-up" funds in channels?
Stack Exchange Answer
Can the Lightning Network work on any other cryptocurrency? How?
Stack Exchange Answer
When setting up a Lightning Network Node are fees set for the entire node, or each channel when opened?
You don't really set up a "node" in the sense that anyone with more than one channel can automatically be a node and route payments. Fees on LN can be set by the node, and can change dynamically on the network. -- Source
Can Lightning routing fees be changed dynamically, without closing channels?
Yes but it has to be implemented in the Lightning software being used. -- Source
How can you make sure that there will be routes with large enough balances to handle transactions?
You won't have to do anything. With autopilot enabled, it'll automatically open and close channels based on the availability of the network. -- Source
How does the Lightning Network stop flooding nodes (DDoS) with micro transactions? Is this even an issue?
Stack Exchange Answer

Unanswered Questions

How do on-chain fees work when opening and closing channels? Who pays the fee?
How does the Lightning Network work for mobile users?
What are the best practices for securing a lightning node?
What is a lightning "hub"?
How does lightning handle cross chain (Atomic) swaps?

Special Thanks and Notes

  • Many links found from awesome-lightning-network github
  • Everyone who submitted a question or concern!
  • I'm continuing to format for an easier Mobile experience!
submitted by codedaway to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Earn Bitcoin From The Comfort Of Your Home!

DID YOU KNOW YOU CAN EARN BITCOIN ONLINE?
If you want to improve your cryptocurrency stock, the most common options are buying more or trading. you can also make money in the world of cryptocurrency by blogging, gambling, exchange platforms, affiliate programs, and many more.
I'm saying, "Bitcoin," as it is the most popular and established cryptocurrency, but there are several other forms of cryptocurrency affiliate programs out there as well.
Most of the programs pay in fiat money, but not all, some greatest programs pay you BITCOINS--the number 1 cryptocurrency.
HOW TO EARN BITCOIN ONLINE WITH COMPLETE TUTORIAL? NO PROBLEM! WE GOT YOU!
Top Bitcoin Affiliate Programs
  1. Bankera - Hold BNK tokens in your Spectro Coin wallet to get a share of the companies profits.
  2. Bitkong - is a provably fair and most popular bitcoin gambling site with free faucet.
  3. Brave Browser- a free and open-source web browser developed by Brave Software, Inc. based on the Chromium web browser. It blocks ads and website trackers and provides a way for users to send cryptocurrency contributions in the form of Basic Attention Tokens to websites and content creators.
  4. The Abyss - offers many good quality games and you as the affiliate marketer can earn lifetime commissions promoting these games.
  5. Kucoin is one of the most popular exchanges, it has big trading volume and if you hold KCS tokens in the exchange wallet you get a share of this companies daily profits paid automatically into your wallet.
  6. Chain Warriors – Popular and pay as you play games have some of the most earning potentials
Cryptocurrency Exchange
  1. Binance – one of the world's biggest exchanges, stake coins, loan coins and refer users to earn a profit.
Blogging Platform
  1. Publish0x – Earn BAT tokens by tipping users, writing articles and referring users, a nice platform, and easy to earn small amounts of crypto daily.
Blockchain Game
  1. Prospectors - Plunge into the 19th century Gold Rush atmosphere from your device! This exciting game of strategy gives players endless opportunities to earn crypto gold by utilizing blockchain technology. Here you can start a business and explore a world teeming with resources there for the taking.
Blockchain Gambling
  1. Bitvest - solid gambling platform that has many dedicated users along with a transparent and fair system for choosing wins and losses.
YOU WANT SOME MORE? CLICK MORE FOR MORE!
submitted by potatonyo to earnbitcoin [link] [comments]

Earn Bitcoin From The Comfort Of Your Home!

DID YOU KNOW YOU CAN EARN BITCOIN ONLINE?
If you want to improve your cryptocurrency stock, the most common options are buying more or trading. you can also make money in the world of cryptocurrency by blogging, gambling, exchange platforms, affiliate programs, and many more.
I'm saying, "Bitcoin," as it is the most popular and established cryptocurrency, but there are several other forms of cryptocurrency affiliate programs out there as well.
Most of the programs pay in fiat money, but not all, some greatest programs pay you BITCOINS--the number 1 cryptocurrency.
HOW TO EARN BITCOIN ONLINE WITH COMPLETE TUTORIAL? NO PROBLEM! WE GOT YOU!
Top Bitcoin Affiliate Programs
  1. Bankera - Hold BNK tokens in your Spectro Coin wallet to get a share of the companies profits.
  2. Bitkong - is a provably fair and most popular bitcoin gambling site with free faucet.
  3. Brave Browser- a free and open-source web browser developed by Brave Software, Inc. based on the Chromium web browser. It blocks ads and website trackers and provides a way for users to send cryptocurrency contributions in the form of Basic Attention Tokens to websites and content creators.
  4. The Abyss - offers many good quality games and you as the affiliate marketer can earn lifetime commissions promoting these games.
  5. Kucoin is one of the most popular exchanges, it has big trading volume and if you hold KCS tokens in the exchange wallet you get a share of this companies daily profits paid automatically into your wallet.
  6. Chain Warriors – Popular and pay as you play games have some of the most earning potentials
Cryptocurrency Exchange
  1. Binance – one of the world's biggest exchanges, stake coins, loan coins and refer users to earn a profit.
Blogging Platform
  1. Publish0x – Earn BAT tokens by tipping users, writing articles and referring users, a nice platform, and easy to earn small amounts of crypto daily.
Blockchain Game
  1. Prospectors - Plunge into the 19th century Gold Rush atmosphere from your device! This exciting game of strategy gives players endless opportunities to earn crypto gold by utilizing blockchain technology. Here you can start a business and explore a world teeming with resources there for the taking.
Blockchain Gambling
  1. Bitvest - solid gambling platform that has many dedicated users along with a transparent and fair system for choosing wins and losses.
YOU WANT SOME MORE? CLICK MORE FOR MORE!
submitted by potatonyo to u/potatonyo [link] [comments]

Bitcoin Token Full Review

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=G46xijtmnng&t=30s
Bitcoin Token Full Review Was up guys I want to talk about Bitcoin Token and all of its cool features like the Masternode, Staking Wallet and even owning your own full node using a Raspberry Pi, Plus some managed to create a Mining Rig or somewhat of a "Staking Rig" for BTCT. Oh and here's the links to what you see in this video =))
---
** Bitcoin Token Main Website **
https://www.bitcointoken.pw
** Bitcoin Token Ann Page **
https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?top...
** Bitcoin Token CoinMarketCap & CoinGecko **
https://coinmarketcap.com/currencies/...
https://www.coingecko.com/en/coins/bi...
**Bitcoin Token Block Explorer **
http://explorer.bitcointoken.pw/
** Bitcoin Token Medium Page **
https://medium.com/@bitcointokenbtct
** Bitcoin Token Telegram **
https://t.me/bitcointokenbtct
** Bitcoin Token Twitter Page **
https://twitter.com/_bitcointoken
----
Keyword: Marketing, Online Marketing, Sales, Promoting, Content Creation, Promoter, Crypto, Cryptocurrency, Blockchain, P2P, Peer to Peer, Block Explorer, Genesis Block, Asic miners, PoW, Proof of Work, PoS, Proof of Stake, MN, MasterNode, Bitcoin, BTC, Ethereum, ETH, ERC20, Smart Contracts, MetaMask, ETHplorer, Altcoins, ICO, Crypto Faucets, Bounty Contest, Crypto Airdrops, Bitpay, Bitcoin Token, BTCT
#Bitcoin #Blockchain #Cryptocurrency
submitted by Beekeyyy to u/Beekeyyy [link] [comments]

M&B Marketing | Boost Your Web Traffic | Boost Your Business

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HtMLk5abiPk&t=61s
M&B Marketing | Boost Your Web Traffic | Boost Your Business
---
Hey was up guys I want to share a service call M&B Marketing that will help out increase the web traffic into your Videos, Music, Article and more all by a single company that will help you gain more attention for your content and help boost your business.
**M&B Marketing Main Website:**
https://www.organic-exchange.com/
**M&B Marketing Twitter Page:**
https://twitter.com/murthaburke
**M&B Marketing Facebook Page:**
http://bit.ly/MBmarketingg
**M&B Marketing Youtube Channel:**
http://bit.ly/MByoutub3
---
Keyword: Marketing, Online Marketing, Sales, Promoting, Content Creation, Promoter, Crypto, Cryptocurrency, Blockchain, P2P, Peer to Peer, Block Explorer, Genesis Block, Asic miners, PoW, Proof of Work, PoS, Proof of Stake, MN, MasterNode, Bitcoin, BTC, Ethereum, ETH, ERC20, Smart Contracts, MetaMask, ETHplorer, Altcoins, ICO, Crypto Faucets, Bounty Contest, Crypto Airdrops, Bitpay #Marketing #Crypto #Blockchain
submitted by Beekeyyy to u/Beekeyyy [link] [comments]

FAQ & Daily General Discussion - January 3th, 2018

FAQ below, daily discussion in the comments! /RaiTrade for all price and trading related posts
Welcome!
As only 2 stickied threads are possible, we have decided to combine the "Are you new here" and the daily discussion thread. XRB is attracting more and more people, both veterans and newbies in the cryptoworld. As XRB is quite a bit different than other coins/blockchains, it's normal that a lot of users have (the same) questions. So please, before making a new thread, read this post first and use the search bar! Threads that are created which contain a question to which an answer is available here, will be locked and directed to this post.
 
Guidelines for posting in this thread:
 
Questions, debates, meta issues, etc are all welcome. Breaking news should be posted separately from this thread. Rules:
 
Be respectful to one another. Follow the golden rule. No trolling or shilling.
 
Guidelines for posting new threads:
 
Is your thread something that does not fit in the daily thread or in another 'general' thread? Do you have a question, and it's not in the list below? Do you have exiting news to post? Did you use the search bar first? Good, go ahead :-)
 
The Whitepaper: In logical order, we start with the whitepaper. It contains the complete details about RaiBlocks, including some more technical details. Even if you're not technical, take a quick look at it. It will explain a lot! https://raiblocks.net/media/RaiBlocks_Whitepaper__English.pdf
 
The FAQs: Now the technical FAQs, a document explaining how it works, how it compares to other coins, ... https://raiblocks.net/media/RaiBlocks_FAQ.pdf
 
Let's keep a decent overview of other, more practical questions :-)
 
Guide to set up your wallet https://www.reddit.com/RaiBlocks/comments/7bw77e/how_to_setup_your_desktop_wallet/
 
How do I buy or store XRB? Check out these guides: https://www.reddit.com/RaiBlocks/comments/7i0co0/the_definitive_guide_to_buying_and_storing/ https://www.reddit.com/RaiBlocks/comments/7iv89b/how_to_buy_xrb_without_waiting_for_a_transaction/
 
My desktop wallet isn't syncing! Do the numbers between the brackets still move? Good. The numbers before the parentheses are the number of blocks the wallet has verified, the numbers between parentheses is the amount of downloaded-but-not-yet-verified blocks. Is the wallet unlocked? Good, it needs to be unlocked to be able to sync. Still nothing? Go to 'accounts' - 'use account'. Still nothing? Close the wallet, reopen it.
 
What is a representative? Ah, so you haven't read the whitepaper haven't you... When conflicting blocks arise, a vote will have to be cast on which block to accept. Since you won't be online 24/7, you can outsource your voting power to a representative, who are online 24/7. They cannot access your funds, and you can change it anytime.
 
What is the incentive to run a node? Apart from helping the network and making it more secure, this user gives a detailed answer: https://www.reddit.com/CryptoCurrency/comments/7j4xgt/i_just_sent_1000xrb_from_one_wallet_to_anothedr4l587/
 
My transaction isn't visible in my wallet or it says 'not pocketed' on the block explorer! Is your wallet fully synced? Yes? Good, it needs to be completely synced before it will show your balances. Nothing? Go to "https://raiblocks.net/account/index.php?acc=ADDRESS HERE". Do you see the transaction there (as 'not pocketed')? Good, that means that it's just a matter of showing it in your wallet, the coins are linked to your address already. In your wallet, go to 'Accounts' - 'Use account', 'Back', 'Advanced' - 'Search for receivables'. Did it work? Good. If not, go to 'Advanced' - 'Account explorer', hit refresh. Still nothing? Close/kill the wallet and reopen it. Still nothing? Go to 'Advanced' and change the unit from Mxrb to xrb and back to Mxrb. Stillll nothing? Fine, make a thread!
 
The syncing is sooo slow!! On HDD, it can take a couple days for it to sync. Why? Every block is only 400bytes in size, they all need to be written on your HDD. SSD takes about 12h. Check the bottom of this post for a shortcut if you use HDD (or SSD and have no patience :-) ).
 
My withdrawal from BitGrail/Mercatox isn't working!! BitGrail and Mercatox are having quite some issues, both due to a bug in their RaiBlocks node, and because of being overwelmed. They have to do each withdrawal manually. Log a ticket and have patience! Mercatox support: https://mercatox.com/support BitGrail support: to be added when they're back
 
We need a new exchange & website & ...!! Indeed, large exchange would be super!. But before that, we need a new website, mobile wallets, ... Those are in the make. Don't ask about the new exchanges, no one knows!
 
What is the incentive to run a node? There is no monetary reward, but tread this post/comment! https://www.reddit.com/CryptoCurrency/comments/7j4xgt/i_just_sent_1000xrb_from_one_wallet_to_anothedr4l587/
 
We're limited to 7k TPS, how's that scalable!? The current limitation of 7K TPS is a hardware limitation of writing data to the disk, not a protocol limitation. As hardware improves, so will the TPS limit.
 
Does the receiver account have to be online when I create my send transaction? No, whenever the send transaction goes out, the funds are "not pocketed" by the receiver. The funds are as good as the receivers and cannot be revoked by the sender. "Not pocketed" funds do NOT expire.
 
What are "not pocketed" funds? A transaction consists of a "send" and a "receive" transaction. During the period where a "send" doesn't have its partnering "receive" transaction, the accounts are considered "not pocketed" by the recipient. "Not pocketed" funds are securely the receiver's funds. Once the receiver's wallet comes online, is fully synced, and unlocked, the funds will automatically be signed into their account chain.
 
What are the requirements to run a node? Currently the only real recommendation is to have a fast storage medium, such as an SSD instead of HDD. This is because currently the full node software does a lot of disk I/O for rapidly processing transactions. This may change with future full node versions that better utilize available system RAM and relax disk I/O.
 
What do the numbers at the top of the desktop wallet mean? The numbers will look like: processed (unprocessed downloaded) Where "processed" is the number of downloaded blocks that your node has processed, and "unprocessed downloaded" are blocks that your software has downloaded but not processed yet. To be fully synced, all blocks must be processed. As new transactions are created on the network, they will be downloaded into the "unprocessed" category to be subsequently processed.
 
How can I run a full node? The desktop wallet is already a full node! Just by running it you are helping
 
Can I send funds to my wallet before it is synced? Yes. Funds can be sent to any "xrb_" address, even if they were created in an offline environment. RaiBlocks is exactly the same as ethereum or bitcoin in this sense. The funds will show up when the wallet is fully synced with the network. Make sure to back up your seed!
 
How do I backup my wallet? Just write down your seed and keep it in a safe place. All accounts generated from that seed will be generated again (in order) when you restore that seed.
 
Can I reuse an address? Yes, unlike IOTA you can reuse addresses like in Bitcoin and Ethereum. Please understand the reasoning for this; IOTA does this because it is a drawback to the quantum-proof digital signature algorithm they use. RaiBlocks' current digital signature algorithm is not quantum proof, but the devs have expressed interest in changing to a quantum-proof algortihm as the field matures and quantum computers become a more significant threat to the network.
 
What's up with the units? Currently the ticker XRB on exchanges represents 1 Mxrb (or million xrb). As the name suggests, 1Mxrb = 1000000 xrb. The smallest unit of RaiBlocks is the raw. There are 1024 raw in an xrb, or 1030 raw in an Mxrb/XRB. Whenever people are talking, they are generally talking in XRB or equivalently Mxrb
 
What is the max supply? The max supply is 133,248,290 XRB. For units see the question above. Why this number? Well RaiBlock's value is kept in a uint128 variable (unsigned 128-bit integer). An uint128 has max value (2128)-1, which is approximately 340,282,366,920,938,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000. This was the original number of "raw" in RaiBlocks. RaiBlocks was distributed via a Captcha faucet distribution system; of which 133,248,290 XRB were distributed. Due to some non-technical issues, the faucet distribution was cut short and the remaining quantity was burned. This leaves just 133,248,290 XRB (approximately 133,248,290,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 raw) circulating.
 
Can someone access my funds even if I use a password (desktop wallet) Yes. The password feature of the desktop wallet just encrypts the seed locally on your computer. If anyone gets access to your plaintext (unencrypted seed, the thing we tell you to backup) they have access to your funds. The benefit of the password is that if someone has access to your computer, they don't immediately have access to your raiblocks.
 
Whats a seed? What's a private key? Whats a public key? Any time you set up a Raiblocks address (such as creating a new wallet) , you will be provided with a "Seed" which is 64 characters of text that is unique to your wallet. Do not store your seed online (e.g do not screenshot, email or save it in a file) because anyone with the seed can access all accounts on it and take all of your Rai! The reason why it is provided is so that if for any reason you need to recover your account(s) you can do so without the original wallet you created the account on, so keep it safe!
 
Tips & Tricks * Transferring BTC between exchanges can be expensive and relatively fast (think hour(s)), or cheap and slow (think a few days). LTC or ETH transfers are faster, but make sure to check the discrepancy in BTC-LTC or BTC-ETH prices on markets with low volume! * 1 XRB as bought on an exchange is 1 million xrb, aka Rai. 1 Rai = 1024th raw, the smallest units on the RaiBlocks network. * 'Not pocketed' can stay like that indefinitely. If you want to spend the coins, you'll have to sync your wallet and create a 'RECEIVE' block though (this is done by Advanced - Check for receivables in the desktop wallet).
 
Want to try out the instant transactions without any fees? Check out This link
 
Daily update of data.ldb for 1st sync Want to skip the long sync time? Save your seed, check Readme.txt if you are going to use this method to speed up 1st wallet sync! Confirm the checksums/links in the #support channel at https://chat.raiblocks.net/. It's usually posted by SergSW. This link or this slightly newer one will guide you through it, but use the links below for the most recent files.
 
Find the latest updated DB files in the wiki page: https://www.reddit.com/RaiBlocks/wiki/index
Make sure to read the readme.txt!!
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